Welcome to PoolAndSpa.com 
  We Bring The World Of Pools And Spas Right To Your Front Door !
  Swimming Pool And Hot Tub Parts & Supplies, How-To Articles & Videos
  Saturday, December 10, 2016
Click Here
.
Home      Search      How-To      Contact      Videos      Shop Now      Parts      Mailing List      Order Status      View Cart
.

.

Advanced Search


PoolAndSpa.com

 DEPARTMENTS:
 
Product Directory >
  Hot Tub Parts >
  Pool Parts >
  Hot Tub Products >
  Pool Products >
 
Pool & Spa Covers >
  Green Products >
 
Backyard Products >
  Clearance Dept. >
  Coupons Deals >
  Newsletter Deals >

Sign Up For Special Coupons & Deals From Our PoolAndSpa.com Email Newsletter


Click Here

Click Here

Click Here

Click Here

Click Here

Click Here

Click Here

Click Here

Call us Toll Free at 1-800-876-7647 or 631-205-5200 !


Swimming Pool Water Chemistry

Glossary of Terms


Back to the Table of Contents


Glossary of Terms

The following is a glossary of terms to help you develop your water chemistry vocabulary.

Bromine A chemical that works as a sanitizer or disinfectant to kill bacteria and algae in pool and spa water. This chemical does not eliminate swimmer waste unless it is combined with an oxidizer. It is very susceptible to direct sunlight, therefore is not efficient in outdoor pools. The ideal range is from 2.0 to 4.0 ppm for pools and 3.0 - 5.0 ppm in spas.
Calcium hardness The amount of calcium and magnesium in pool and spa water. The ideal range is from 200 to 400 ppm in both pools and spas.
Calcium hypochlorite A common type of chlorine used in pools and spas. A granular or tablet substance typically dissolved in water prior to adding it to the pool and spa water.
Chloramines An inefficient disinfectant formed when chlorine has combined with ammonia and nitrogen in pool and spa water. It exudes a foul, "chlorine" odor and causes skin and eye irritation.
Chlorine A chemical that works as a sanitizer or disinfectant in pool and spa water to kill bacteria and algae, and oxidizes ammonia and nitrogen compounds such as swimmer waste. The ideal range is from 1.0 to 3.0 ppm in pools and 1.5 - 3.0 ppm in spas.
Chlorine gas This is the most pure form of chlorine and can only be applied to pools by a trained professional. It is not an appropriate sanitizer for spas.
Colorimetric tests A test for chlorine, bromine and pH where the reagent causes a change in color when reacting with the specified chemical.
Cyanuric acid A stabilizer that works to keep a reserve of "free available" chlorine in pool and spa water, protecting it from direct sunlight. Because their exposure to sunlight is limited, it is not frequently used in spas. It is, however, present in some sanitizers such as trichlor and dichlor. The ideal level is from 30 to 100 ppm in both pools and spas.
DPD A common chlorine or bromine test using color change as an indicator. It allows for separate free available and combined chlorine testing.
End-point reaction The resulting color change in a test sample created when you add drops of a given reagent. The number of drops correlates with a measurement.
Free available chlorine The killing, active form of chlorine.
Lithium hypochlorite A granular form of chlorine used in pools and spas. It is known for its tendency to dissolve quickly.
Muriatic acid A liquid acid that is most commonly used to reduce pH and total alkalinity levels. It tends to be very strong, and is not recommended for use in spas.
OTO A common chlorine or bromine test using color change as an indicator. This test will not separate free available chlorine from combined chlorine.
Ozone A powerful gas that acts as a sanitizer and oxidizer, but is highly unstable and cannot be used to create a sanitizer residual.
Parts per million (ppm) A unit of measurement used for chlorine, bromine, total alkalinity, calcium hardness and total dissolved solids.
pH A level determining the acidic or basic quality of pool and spa water. The ideal range is from 7.4 to 7.6 in pools and 7.2 to 7.8 in spas.
Phenol red A common pH test that uses color change as a indicator.
Scale formation This usually occurs on the walls of the pool or spa when there are high levels of calcium hardness, total dissolved solids, pH and total alkalinity.
Shocking Adding a large dose of chlorine or other chemical's to quickly increase the amount of free available sanitizers compared with the less effective, "combined" form of the sanitizer.
Soda ash A substance used to raise pH and total alkalinity. It is not recommended for use in spas.
Sodium bicarbonate Otherwise known as household baking soda, this substance is used to raise pH and total alkalinity levels in pools and spas.
Sodium hypochlorite Otherwise known as common household bleach, this is the most common form of liquid chlorine used in pools and spas.
Test strips Chemically treated strips that have the appropriate amounts of reagents on them. Simply dip them into the water and read the reactions. These strips can test free available and total chlorine, bromine, pH, calcium hardness, total alkalinity and cyanuric acid.
Titration test A test used for acid and base demands, total alkalinity and calcium hardness. It creates an end-point reaction by adding drops of the reagent to elicit a change in the sample's color. The number of drops required correlates with the measurement.
Total alkalinity Works in a buffering capacity, protecting the water from dramatic pH changes. The ideal range is from 80 to 140 ppm in pools and 80 to 120 ppm in spas.
Total dissolved solids The total amount of dissolved materials in pool or spa water. The ideal range is from 1,000 to 2,000 ppm in pools and 1,500 ppm above the start-up TDS in spas.
Turbidity tests Used to test the amount of cyanuric acid in the water. The reagent causes a cloudiness of the test water. Measurement is obtained by comparing the test water's visibility (the degree of clarity of a dot in the test vial) to the test kit manufacturer's chart.
Water balance This balance is reached when all elements (pH, total alkalinity, calcium hardness and total dissolved solids) are within their proper ranges.